Saturday, December 29, 2018

An accused sexual harasser has committed suicide. Who is to blame? [Updated June 2019]

Earlier this month, Rod Scott, a talented plant geneticist at the University of Bath in the United Kingdom, took his own life. He leaves behind two grieving families: One consisting of three young adult children, whose mother, Scott's ex-partner, died from cancer last fall; the other, a very young daughter and his mother, Scott's current partner.

He also leaves behind many grieving colleagues and students in Bath's department of Biology and Biochemistry, where he earlier served as head of department for many years.

Finally, he leaves behind a number of current and former female students in the department, who say they were the subject of unwanted sexual attention from Scott--behavior which, according to numerous sources, was known by many in the department and by University of Bath officials.

At the time of his death, he was under active investigation by the university for sexual harassment, and had reportedly been suspended during that investigation. I knew about this because, as a reporter looking into allegations of bullying and harassment by several of the department's faculty, I had earlier reported on the allegations concerning Scott. This prompted the university to issue a statement about the situation in Biology and Biochemistry, acknowledging the problems and vaguely describing some of the investigations that had already taken place. These included allegations of bullying, which were more or less upheld, by paleontologist Nick Longrich, who subsequently lost a million pound Leverhulme Trust grant as a result. (Shortly after my own blog post on this development, Nature also reported the news.)

When someone takes their own life, there are usually multiple factors involved. I do not claim to know exactly why Scott took this action (the recent death of the mother of his adult children probably played a role), but there is considerable circumstantial evidence that the sexual harassment allegations against him were also an important factor. For one thing, sources have reported to me that some family members and colleagues are blaming both me as the reporter, and the victims who have made formal or informal accusations against him, for his death. I received an email just the other day from a researcher close to the situation who blamed me directly for causing Scott's death. **

Some readers might assume that I am feeling defensive about this. Here's what I will say: Any death saddens me, and I think the circumstances of Scott's death are tragic because I believe it could have been prevented. And in what I write here, I have tried to respect the privacy of the individuals affected by not naming them and giving as few details as I feel necessary to make clear what happened. On the other hand, such a widespread history of sexual harassment in a university science department is a matter of public concern, and full exposure and transparency is the only way that the culture of harassment will change--something that the #MeToo movement and its supporters have made clear in their advocacy.

But I will make my own accusation: To the extent that the sexual misconduct allegations played a role in his suicide, I blame the University of Bath administration, and certain leaders and colleagues in the department, for not taking the harassment situation in hand much earlier, even though they have known about it for many years. Had victims not been discouraged from filing complaints; had Scott's behavior not been excused time and again with "oh that's just Rod;" had he been issued a serious zero tolerance warning early on, and it made clear to him that his job was in jeopardy if he did not heed it; perhaps then his behavior might have been modified early enough to avoid what has now come to pass.

Instead, department leaders and university officials, through their inaction, gave harassment victims little choice but to contact a reporter and tell him their stories. The system betrayed them, and so they did what was necessary to get the truth out.

Moreover, Scott was not the only harasser in the department. Multiple witnesses also told me about the late Richard Cooper, a plant pathology researcher, who died last fall. Although not quite as notorious in his misconduct as Scott, Cooper was also well-known for harassing female students. (There are allegations against other faculty members, but I have not yet investigated them.)

Nor was Longrich the only accused bully in the department: I also wrote about the case of Stephanie Diezmann, an expert in infectious fungi. Diezmann, who has now moved to the University of Bristol, was cleared by the university of the bullying charges against her, despite clear evidence that should have upheld at least some of them.

A history of years of harassment

After I reported on Longrich's case, I was contacted by two women in the department who told me about Rod Scott's behavior for the first time. They also referred me to other sources, including former students, who had either been harassed by Scott themselves or witnessed him doing it to fellow students. So far, I have talked to five* women--current and former department members--whom I consider direct, first hand sources on Scott's misconduct. In addition, other sources who had known Scott over the years provided insights into his character, personality, and complicated family situations, as well as the culture of the department in general.

(To protect sources, I am not giving details of the numerous incidents of sexual harassment described to me by victims, as the specifics might tend to identify the women involved.)

The direct sources made clear that sexual harassment was endemic in Biology and Biochemistry. Some of this took place at social events, where inevitably a lot of drinking was done. "I have seen gross, lecherous behavior at several social events, by several members of senior male academic staff," one woman told me. In other cases, the harassment was in more private settings, from which the victims found it more difficult to extricate themselves. Yet there have only been a few formal complaints made, for fear of retaliation. Indeed, in at least one case, Scott himself attempted to retaliate against a woman who had filed a complaint against him.

"Sexism is rampant in the department," a source told me. "Especially with older members of staff towards PhD students. The problem is everyone, including myself, is too afraid to speak out, for fear of some form of repercussion in the future."

(Because of fear of retaliation, all of the women I talked to asked to remain anonymous. However, this post relies strictly on first-hand information, and not rumors or second-hand allegations.)

How long has this been going on? My investigation has relied so far on either current members of the department or researchers and students who left the department less than ten years ago. However, based on my reporting, the department and the university (more specifically its Human Resources division) had been aware of allegations concerning Rod Scott since at least 2013. Other sources tell me that it was well known in the department going back until at least 2011 that Scott was a serial sexual harasser. "During my time at Bath, the sexual harassment issues of Rod Scott were very widely known within and beyond the department," says one researcher who was there during that earlier period.

The current head of department, David Tosh, has been aware of Scott's behavior for at least three years and possibly longer, and the deputy head of department, Adele Murrell, had been aware for some time as well. (So far neither Tosh nor Murrell have responded to my requests to talk with them, and the university press office has said it will not comment further beyond acknowledging that various investigations into misconduct have been taking place.)

In fairness, department sources tell me that since the Nick Longrich affair, and my earlier revelations concerning Rod Scott, both Tosh and Bath's HR division have begun taking the situation more seriously, and actively communicating to the department and the university at large about its strict policies against bullying and harassment. Will that make victims of bullying and harassment feel more comfortable about speaking out and, if necessary, filing formal complaints?

That remains to be seen. But as I state above, all of this comes too late to save the life of Rod Scott, a talented scientist, but one who clearly behaved very badly when he was alive. Yet department and university officials waited so long to take the situation in hand, and did so much to discourage victims from speaking out, that, in this #MeToo era, it was inevitable that a deluge of accusations would be released against him--a flood that Scott's already fragile mental state may have been too weak to withstand.

I call this a preventable death; and, based on my reporting, I hold the University of Bath to be largely responsible for it.

* This number is increasing as new witnesses have contacted me since this blog was published, see update below.

** After giving it a lot of thought, I have decided to reproduce here the email I received from a researcher who is the partner of a former faculty member in the department. This and other indications that some were blaming the victims and I for Scott's suicide prompted me to post this blog earlier than I had originally planned, to set the record straight:

You are unbelievable. Not content with causing a man's death, you have to go on twitter to blame his grieving colleagues? You gonna follow this up with an expose on the role his kids played in his death? I can understand not wanting to take responsibility for your actions when they include a year-old baby growing up without her dad but couldn't you for once shut the fuck up? At least until the goddamned holidays are over? ***

In fact, Scott was still trying to hit on female students while he was living with the mother of the baby referred to. I hope it would be clear that anyone who accuses me of being responsible for Scott's death is, in effect, accusing the victims of his harassment of being responsible, since I am simply the messenger helping those women to tell their stories.

*** I made clear to this researcher that his email to me was on the record, because I had not agreed otherwise. After still more reflection, I have decided to identify him. It is Heath O'Brien, a genome evolution researcher at the University of Cardiff, and partner of accused bully Stephanie Diezmann.

Update: As often happens, the publication of this blog post earlier today has led new sources and witnesses to contact me about the situation in Bath's Department of Biology and Biochemistry, and specifically about Rod Scott. I said above that my reporting so far has established that members of the department knew about his behavior going back as early as 2011. The new information indicates that it was widely known among both students and faculty at least 10 years earlier than that. It is truly amazing that this was allowed to go on for so long, and the evidence greatly supports my contention that the department and the university were derelict in their duty to protect students. What continues to be so disturbing is the increasing evidence that senior faculty knew about Scott's bullying and harassment of students, and sexual relationships with them that many considered inappropriate, and yet nothing was done about it.

I would just add that there is a great deal about Scott's behavior and treatment of women over many years that I have been reliably told about but have not included in the above report, in an attempt to keep the focus tightly on actionable misconduct and harassment. It is terrible that he died, but he cannot be sanctified.

Update June 21, 2019: In the months since I first reported on this sad and tragic situation (tragic for Rod Scott's family, and for the victims of his serial sexual predation) new witnesses have approached me with new details that confirm the basic outlines of the story above, and add to it. Some of these new details come from a former PhD student of Rod Scott's I shall call "A." Sources had told me earlier that Scott's inappropriate behavior, including sleeping with students, had begun much earlier, and A--who was a student of Scott's beginning in 2001--corroborated earlier testimony that Scott had a sexual relationship around that time with an undergraduate student I will call "P." A, who was aware of the affair as was, reportedly, much of the biology and biochemistry department, says that she became the subject of severe bullying by Scott at this time, possibly as a result of her knowledge of the affair. This bullying, A says, nearly drove her to suicide.

After Scott's death, A, who had left the University of Bath long before, filed a complaint with Bath's Human Resources department concerning Scott's behavior and the way the university had dealt with the bullying issues at the time. The final report was issued on June 20 of this year,  signed by HR director Richard Brooks. The gist of the report was that since Scott was deceased, there was not much that could be done at this time. HR did, however, interview three witnesses from the time: P herself, her undergraduate supervisor (let's call him R), and James Doughty, a senior lecturer and good friend of Scott's in the department. The report says that none of them could (or would) corroborate A's account.

I have reached out to all three of these individuals, and none have gotten back to me so far. If they do get in touch, I will update this account. But the time has come for me to point out that a number of witnesses have accused Doughty himself of sexual harassment and also of inappropriate sexual relationships with students. According to several sources, Scott and Doughty regularly covered for each other in these situations. For example, when Scott's affair with P became the subject of department gossip, Doughty queried students (including A) to find out how widely the relationship was known.

It appears that sexual predation in the University of Bath department of biology and biochemistry has a very long history, and that the university is still basically covering it up. University officials used the understandable grief over Scott's suicide as a smokescreen for the misconduct that contributed to it, and is still doing so today. And Doughty, by enabling his friend and colleague Rod Scott in his continuing misconduct, may have also unwittingly contributed to his untimely death. But as I argue above, there is no question that the university itself--which turned a blind eye to years of harassment and abuse by its faculty--bears the heaviest responsibility.

Thursday, December 20, 2018

BuzzFeed's win in Steele dossier defamation case: A victory for freedom of the press and, I hope, a rebuke to gatekeeping in journalism

Ben Smith
BuzzFeed has won the defamation lawsuit filed against it by Aleksej Gubarev, owner of Luxembourg-based XBT Holding SA and Florida-based Webzilla Inc., for publishing the so-called "Russia dossier" compiled by Christopher Steele. The dossier, which BuzzFeed made public on January 10, 2017, reports allegations that Gubarev was responsible for cyber attacks on the Democratic Party during the 2016 election.

The decision is a clear victory for freedom of the press and the public's right to know. It should also be a gentle rebuke--and a lesson--to those journalists and pundits who initially criticized BuzzFeed for publishing the dossier, even though its key allegations had not (yet) been substantiated by reporters.

Indeed, in my view, the last two years have served as a clear vindication of BuzzFeed editor Ben Smith's risky decision to publicly reveal the dossier's full contents, very shortly after CNN reported its existence. As he wrote in a note to BuzzFeed's news staff later that evening, "Our presumption is to be transparent in our journalism and to share what we have with our readers," even though, as the news outlet's accompanying story made clear, "there is serious reason to doubt the allegations." Smith concluded: "But publishing this dossier reflects how we see the job of reporters in 2017."

Of course, not all journalists and editors saw it that way. Smith and BuzzFeed came in for some fairly ferocious criticism, including from the Washington Post's Margaret Sullivan--a commentator for whom I have great respect and who has more recently led the way in urging journalists and the media to slice through the lies of the Trump administration. But in a column the following day, Sullivan severely chastised BuzzFeed, arguing that "It's never been acceptable to publish rumor and innuendo." Yet in my view, Sullivan and others undermined their own argument by pointing out that news organizations and government officials had "known for months that this information, if it can be called that, existed. But despite many attempts, the claims about Trump's behavior and relationships in Russia could not be verified."

Sullivan was far from alone. Jane Martinson of The Guardian made similar arguments in a column the same day, and many journalists employed social media to criticize BuzzFeed on the same grounds. One notable exception was Richard Tofel, president of ProPublica, who took to Twitter to support BuzzFeed's decision. "If you oppose the BuzzFeed decision to publish, you need to explain why citizens should not be allowed to see the dossier," Tofel wrote, arguing that once its existence was revealed "the dossier became focus of public debate. What remained was whether the debaters should be allowed to know what they were debating." Columbia Journalism Review's Vanessa Gezari also wrote a spirited defense of BuzzFeed, branding the "media's full-throated condemnation" as "self-righteous and self-serving."

Aleksej Gubarev
In my opinion, Tofel and Gezari summed up the issues very well. In January 2017, politicians (including John McCain), journalists (including most of the major media), and many others in Washington were fully aware of the contents of the Russia dossier. The only ones in the dark were the American public. Thus many journalists and editors made the wrong call in criticizing BuzzFeed, an error that, looking back at what we have learned during the two years since--two years in which the Steele dossier has been a political football for both Trump supporters and opponents--I doubt they would make today.

And given that some journalists and editors (including myself) were vocal in defending BuzzFeed's decision at the time, we cannot be accused of benefiting solely from hindsight. The role of the press is not to serve as gatekeepers of what the public does and does not have the right to know; nor should journalists and editors be gatekeepers within our own profession when an editor makes a difficult but ultimately justifiable decision to publish a document when others declined to do so, for whatever reasons. (I sincerely hope that envy at BuzzFeed's scoop did not play a role in the criticisms, even though some accused the publication of using the dossier as clickbait.)

Whatever the case, Ben Smith and his reporters on the dossier story, Ken Bensinger, Miriam Elder, and Mark Schoofs, should be congratulated for their freedom of press victory, one which benefits us all, journalists and the public alike.

Friday, December 14, 2018

A #STEMToo Rogue's Gallery of sexual harassers, predators, and bullies in the sciences [Continually updated]

Since fall 2015, in collaboration with victims and survivors who have served as primary sources for my stories, I have had the privilege of publicly exposing the following men and women accused of sexual assault, harassment, or bullying. This list does not include a few individuals that I have named on social media, but all allegations I make publicly always based on multiple and credible sources including victims and survivors. The following links refer to my first public mentions of these individuals.

While I started off investigating sexual misconduct for Science and The Verge, I eventually moved most of my #MeToo reporting to my blog. In a September 2019 article for the Columbia Journalism Review, I explain that decision and the criticisms of media coverage of misconduct that led me to go that route.

Update July 10, 2020: Last month I was sued by the subject of one of my more recent investigations, Danielle Kurin of the University of California, Santa Barbara, for $18 million for alleged defamation. University records show that Kurin was put on three months' administrative leave by UCSB in 2016, after being found to have retaliated against students who filed Title IX complaints against her partner, Enmanuel Gomez Choque. I stand firmly by my reporting in that and all the other cases I have worked on. Defending this case will be expensive, and I would be grateful to anyone who could donate to my GoFundMe for legal expenses, and/or share the appeal with others. Thank you.

Brian Richmond, formerly of American Museum of Natural History. Richmond was accused of sexual assault by a colleague he supervised, but the museum did little until Science began an investigation. He was eventually forced to resign.

Miguel Pinto, currently Instituto de Ciencias Biol√≥gicas, Escuela Polit√©cnica Nacional, Ecuador. Pinto was eventually banned from the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History after he sexually assaulted a student there.

Robert Baker, Texas Tech, emeritus. Baker had a long history of sexual harassment of students which was only publicly exposed upon his retirement.

William Hylander, formerly emeritus, Duke University. Hylander is another anthropologist with a long history of sexual harassment, about which nothing was done until he was already emeritus. A Title IX investigation ended with him being stripped of his emeritus status at Duke.

Ron Clarke, University of the Witwatersrand. Clarke was given a zero tolerance warning by Wits after evidence surfaced that he had sexually harassed graduate students.

Steven Churchill, Duke University. Churchill was forced to step down as anthropology department chair at Duke after at least one inappropriate relationship with a student.

Rob Blumenschine, Rutgers University. He was given a zero tolerance warning by Wits, with which he was also affiliated, in the same procedure that looked at Ron Clarke's behavior (see above.)

Nick Longrich, University of Bath. Longrich was removed from supervising graduate students after being found guilty of bullying students at Bath. He lost a large Leverhulme Trust grant as a result.

David Lordkipanidze, Georgia National Museum. Lordkipanidze, according to a number of women who talked to me about their experiences with him, committed multiple sexual assaults on women and harassed many more. Amazingly, despite the weight of evidence against him, the IPHES human evolution institute in Tarragona, Spain has now promoted DL to president of its Scientific Advisory Board. This is unlikely to go unchallenged.

Rod Scott, University of Bath. Scott had a long history of sexual harassment of students at Bath. Scott took his own life in December 2018, while being investigated for this behavior.

Stephanie Diezmann, formerly University of Bath, now University of Bristol. Diezmann bullied multiple students although she was let off the hook after an investigation by Bath.

Luiz Loures, formerly of UNAIDS. Loures allegedly sexually assaulted his colleague Martina Brostrom during a meeting in Thailand. An internal investigation let him off the hook, but an external investigation found that senior UNAIDS leaders created a culture of harassment and abuse of power at the agency.

Jean-Jacques Hublin, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig. Hublin was accused by a student he had an affair with of sexual misconduct and misleading her about his marital status. Other former students have accused him of harassment, and he also allegedly fired a postdoc in his lab when he began dating Hublin's secretary (of whom he was reportedly very fond.) More recently, Tanya Smith, a highly respected biological anthropologist now at the University of Griffith in Australia, has published her story about how Hublin tried to wreck her career over many years because she did not toe the line about his insistence that no one could ever be independent of him. 

David Yesner, University of Alaska, Anchorage. (I did not break the initial story on this case, but followed it for months and I am doing followup. Yesner became a major flash point when he showed up unexpected at the SAA meetings in Albuquerque.)

Fethi Ahmed, University of the Witwatersrand. Ahmed was dismissed as head of the Wits School of Geography, Archaeology, and Environmental Sciences after being found guilty of gender-based bullying of seven complainants. His dismissal was upheld on appeal.

Deanna Grimstead, Ohio State University. Found guilty by an OSU investigation of sexual harassment of a student in 2015, no apparent action taken, still employed and teaching. Found guilty again last year, in a second Title IX investigation. Finally forced to resign, effective Jan 1, 2020.

Randall White, New York University. Suspended from NYU for a year in the 1990s for a long history of sexual harassment, the whole episode covered up by the university, but not forgotten by those who suffered. I have called upon White to come clean about what he did and the effect it had on young researchers as he retires in August.

Kevin Folta, University of Florida horticulture department, and leading biotech advocate. Although Folta is best known for extensive conflicts of interest in his self-proclaimed role as a "science communicator," there are also multiple witnesses to his having abused his ex-wife while they were married. He was forced to step down as chair of the department in the wake of those revelations.

Michael WestawayUniversity of Queensland in Australia. Bullying, harassment, unethical conduct.

Alan Cooper, ancient DNA, University of Adelaide. Bullying, harassment, unethical behavior. The university launched a "culture check" as a result of publicity about the case and victims coming forward; that inquiry led to Cooper's suspension as director of the lab pending disciplinary action. Update Dec 20, 2019: Cooper has been fired.

Charles Esdaile, University of Liverpool, Department of History. Sexual predation.

James Doughty, University of Bath. A good friend and enabler of the late U of Bath researcher and sexual predator Rod Scott (see above.) Harassment and sleeping with students.

Faye McCallum, Head of School of Education, University of Adelaide. Multiple complaints of bullying of colleagues, harassment, favoritism, preferential treatment, and other abusive and unprofessional behavior. A university inquiry ("culture check") heard the evidence but university officials have done nothing so far.

Sharon Gursky, anthropology, Texas AM. Bullying, unethical behavior including stealing student research ideas.

Bruce Dickson, anthropology, Texas AM, emeritus. Sexual harassment.

Wayne Smith, anthropology, Texas AM, nautical archaeology. Sexual harassment.

Darryl de Ruiter, department chair, anthropology, TAMU. Sexual harassment and bullying, Title IX.

Michael Alvardanthropology, Texas AM. Ethical issues with requiring students to participate in a study involuntarily, bullying and threatening students who expressed concerns about it.

Richard Martin, cultural anthropologist, University of Queensland. Long history of sexual harassment, of which the university is well aware. More to come.

Danielle Kurin and Enmanuel Gomez Choque, University of California, Santa Barbara. Sexual harassment, sexual assault, and retaliation against students who reported it. An updated report on later events can be found at this link. Kurin has now sue me for defamation. GoFundMe link with updates here.

Arthur Demarest, MesoAmerica expert, Vanderbilt University. Sexual harassment, attempts at retaliation. More to come.

Alan Lee, graduate student in the University of Wisconsin-Madison anthropology department. Sexual predation, threats against those he suspects of outing him.

Ran Boytner, Executive Director of the Institute for Field Research. Sexual harassment, bullying, racism, sexism, and enabling of sexual assault at one of the archaeology field schools he directs. Update June 2020: Boytner has been fired as IFR executive director by its governing board. 

Peter Rathjen, most recently Vice-Chancellor and President of the University of Adelaide in Australia. Sexual predation over many years, protecting a pedophile. Forced to step down after a major corruption investigation that has, as they say, rocked Australia.

Pier Paolo Pandolfi, formerly cancer researcher at Harvard Medical School's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, forced to resign for allegations of sexual harassment; just picked up by the Desert Research Institute in Nevada (did they know?) Update June 27, 2020: Corriere della Sera confirms the story

Sam Gue, formerly with University of Adelaide dental school and Women's and Children's Hospital in Adelaide; forced to resign for a years-long history of sexual harassment and bullying. More to come soon.

Luis Jaime Castillo Butters, an Andean archaeologist at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, former Peruvian culture minister, accused of bullying, sexual harassment, sleeping with students. Castillo's activities have come to light as a result of an investigation by The Harvard Crimson into misconduct by a close collaborator of his, Harvard anthropologist Gary Urton. The survivors of Castillo's abuse have issued a powerful statement about their experiences.

Geoffrey Braswell, UC San Diego anthropologist. Aggravated sexual harassment. Developing story, but when three survivors come to me independently to tell me their stories, it's time to call an abuser out.

Necmi Karul, head of the prehistory department at Istanbul University, and director of important excavations in Turkey including early Neolithic Gobekli Tebe. Sexual harassment, charges filed in July 2020. Update July 16, 2020: The allegations have now broken into the Turkish press. Update July 31: My post on the accusations including a detailed letter from one of the victims translated into English.

Mark Siddall, former curator at the American Museum of Natural History. The museum did the investigation, although it took them years of complaints to get around to it; I was tipped off some months ago and kept updating the story as it went along. Now he is gone.